The Geoscape Ottawa-Gatineau activities were developed by classroom teachers and a scientist of the Geological Survey of Canada. Two sets of lesson plans/activities have been prepared by local teachers to meet Ontario curriculum needs.
The Geoscape Ottawa-Gatineau poster, web site and curriculum-correlated student learning activities provide a set of educational tools to raise awareness of the significance of Earth Science in the Ottawa-Gatineau region.
To enhance the effectiveness of the Geoscape poster and web site in Ontario's classrooms, a series of curriculum-linked learning activities have been designed to build on the themes presented by the poster. The activities strive to support teachers in the successful delivery of Earth Science and Geography curriculum expectations while challenging students to relate the knowledge they have acquired to the world outside their classroom.
Teachers may find that material in the other grade level can be adapted to their grade. Each set will provide stand-alone lessons for each of the geoscape theme panels.
Introduction to Ottawa-Gatineau Geoscape Teacher Resource Kits for Grade 7
Each theme panel of the Geoscape Poster has an individual, "stand-alone" Teachers' Kit.
Each kit includes the following components:
Overview: Summarizes what the student will learn.
Students Take Notes: Summarizes the text of the Geoscape theme, but in simpler terms and, whenever possible, in point form. This component can be reproduced on overheads which will allow students to copy notes into their notebooks.
Key Word Game: A word search, word match or crossword game using vocabulary from the theme. Students can refer to this text for assistance. Answers are provided separately. As well, a glossary containing definitions of all words used in the Key Word Games is provided separately.
Lesson Plans: These may include material for overheads to be used in a class discussion, worksheets that the students can complete, and laboratory activities where students will have the opportunity to work hands-on with simulations or models.
List of related web sites and resources: This component lists, with descriptions, other resources that are available either on the web or through various geological or mining organizations.
Prepared by Franca Fiset, Notre Dame High School and Jan Aylsworth, Geological Survey of Canada, Earth Sciences Sector, Natural Resources Canada
Introduction to Ottawa-Gatineau Geoscape Teacher Resource Kits for Grades 9-11
Each theme panel of the Geoscape Poster has an individual, "stand-alone" Teachers' Kit.
Each kit includes the following components:
Overview : Summarizes what the student will learn.
Activity : This may including map interpretation, data analysis, lab experiments, and research questions as well as questions for teacher-directed discussions, based on the geoscape themes. These may include material for overheads to be used in a class discussion and worksheets that the students can complete. Many activities use the on-line databases and maps of the web site : Urban Geology of the National Capital Area.
Prepared by John Weatherhead, South Carleton High School and Jan Aylsworth, Geological Survey of Canada, Earth Sciences Sector, Natural Resources Canada
Curriculum-linked Classroom Activities
Lesson Overviews: Theme One: Introduction to Geoscape
Grade 7 Theme 1a [PDF, 3.9 Mb] Lessons will introduce students to the Ottawa area in terms of its location in Canada, as well as its prominent topographic and geological features including the three main river systems, namely, the Ottawa River, the Rideau River and the Gatineau River. Students will be given the opportunity to discover features relative to landmarks in the Ottawa area that are already known to them, in order to help them situate themselves, their school and their home with respect to important areas. Students will also have the opportunity to view aerial photographs of the Ottawa region and to draw profiles using topographic maps in order to appreciate the relationship between topography and geological regions. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
situate the Ottawa-Gatineau area on a globe as well as on a geological map of Canada
locate the three main river systems
identify important landmarks such as the Rideau Canal, the Parliament Buildings, etc
discover the topography of the Ottawa-Gatineau area using topographic maps (top view) and profiles (cross-sectional diagrams)
explain the relationship between geological regions and topography
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 1b [PDF, 1.3 Mb] Students are introduced to the importance of studying our local area, "brainstorm" the concept of "Geoscape", and connect cause and effect relationships in our Geoscape. They are introduced to Landsat images, identify the location of known features on the landscape, and interpret satellite images by comparing different locations on the Geoscape image. They also use the excellent air photo coverage on the City of Ottawa website. Students conclude relevant location factors for the site and situation of the cities of Ottawa and Gatineau.
Theme Two: Deep Time: Ancient Rocks
Grade 7 Theme 2a [PDF, 2.8 Mb] Lessons will introduce students to the concept of geological time. The geological time scale will be presented, emphasizing the magnitude of time and the classification of eon, era and system. The importance of fossil assemblages will be reviewed as the students are introduced to the nature of fossils and to the importance, for geological dating, of the evolution of lifeforms through time . Students will also learn about continental drift and how this relates to the development of the present day Ottawa-Gatineau Geoscape. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
explain the great length of geological time and the brief time of human existence
identify the rock-building time periods preserved in the Ottawa area and explain why there are time gaps in the ages of Ottawa rocks.
recognize that continents drift with time
identify local fossils
discover evidence of changing climate throughout our geological history.
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 2b [PDF, 1.5 Mb] Students analyze and appreciate the concept of geologic time and interpret the sequence of geologic events that have created the Ottawa-Gatineau Geoscape. Students identify the bedrock and surficial geology of the area and construct geological cross-sectional profiles across the Ottawa-Gatineau Geoscape. Students use the on-line databases and maps of the web site : Urban Geology of the National Capital Area.
Theme Three: Changing Landscape : The Recent Past
Grade 7 Theme 3a [PDF, 2.3 Mb] Lessons will introduce geological processes such as erosion and deposition by glaciers and rivers, which have been responsible for the geoscape of today. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
explain the evolution of the present landscape in the Ottawa-Gatineau area
explain how the glaciers contributed to the formation and retreat of the Champlain Sea
determine the flow patterns of major river systems in Ottawa-Gatineau area and how they have evolved
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 3b[PDF, 438.2 kb] Students classify the effects of glaciation as erosional, transportation and depositional and learn the concept of "isostatic rebound". They locate and document evidence of glaciation in the Ottawa-Gatineau Geoscape and explain how specific features of glaciation found locally were formed. Students use the on-line databases and maps of the web site : Urban Geology of the National Capital Area.
Theme Four: Different Rocks
Grade 7 Theme 4a[PDF, 4.9 Mb] Lessons will enable students to recognize rocks and minerals and classify them according to their origin and texture. Common rock types found in the Ottawa-Gatineau area will be emphasized. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
recognize the three main rock ages present in the Ottawa-Gatineau area
determine where the these rocks are situated on a geological map of Canada
distinguish between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
identify the steps of the rock cycle
recognize the rock-forming minerals found in Ottawa-Gatineau
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 4b [PDF, 1.1 Mb] Students identify and locate the major rocks and minerals mined in the Ottawa-Gatineau region, relate them to the bedrock and surficial geology of the area, and specify the uses for particular rocks and minerals both in the past and present. They determine the relative importance of certain rocks and mineral to the economic development of the area and investigate and appreciate the environmental concerns associated with rock and mineral resource removal.
Theme Five: Wealth from the Land
Grade 7 Theme 5a [PDF, 828.4 kb] Lessons will encourage students to be aware of the importance the natural resources, past and present, in the Ottawa-Gatineau area and of the implications of mining natural resources. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
recognize the natural resources in the Ottawa-Gatineau area
appreciate the impact of mining resources on society, economy and the environment
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 5b [PDF, 396.7 kb] Students identify and locate the major rocks and minerals mined in the Ottawa-Gatineau region, relate them to the bedrock and surficial geology of the area, and specify the uses for particular rocks and minerals both in the past and present. They determine the relative importance of certain rocks and mineral to the economic development of the area and investigate and appreciate the environmental concerns associated with rock and mineral resource removal.
Theme Six: Ottawa River : A Vital Resource
Grade 7 Theme 6a [PDF, 752.6 kb] Lessons will enable students to understand the Ottawa River as a major watershed and to investigate the relationship between the speed of flow and turbidity of the river. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
recognize the value of the Ottawa River watershed for hydroelectric production and for recreation
relate the topography to the direction of flow
establish a relationship between turbidity and geological bed and speed of flow
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 6b [PDF, 509.5 kb] Students identify and describe the stages that the Ottawa River and its tributaries go through in their evolution and locate and explain the characteristics of the significant drainage basins and watersheds of the Ottawa-Gatineau Geoscape. They learn how a river's discharge rates are a variable of the hydrologic cycle and the hydrogeology of the region. Finally, students gain an appreciation of the importance of the variety of uses of the Ottawa River drainage basin.
Theme Seven: Groundwater : Vital But Vulnerable
Grade 7 Theme 7a[PDF, 2.0 Mb] Lessons will enable students to understand the complexities of the groundwater system and appreciate the problems of water quality. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
Understand the importance of groundwater as a renewable resource
Determine how a water table is formed
Recognize some of the problems with contaminants affecting groundwater
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 7b [PDF, 768.4 kb] Students investigate the components of groundwater as an integral part of the hydrologic cycle, construct Hele-Shaw cells to study the behaviour of confined and unconfined aquifers, analyze water quality for its chemical and physical properties, and assess and appreciate the factors that are responsible for quality groundwater. Students use the on-line databases and maps of the web site : Urban Geology of the National Capital Area.
Theme Eight: Flooding : Just Too Much Water
Grade 7 Theme 8a [PDF, 697.5 kb] Lessons will enable students to relate river level and discharge and understand the impacts of flood control. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
understand the relationship between discharge and river level and flooding
learn about flood plains around the Ottawa area and what governments and people can do to prevent damage and injury
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 8b [PDF, 469.5 kb] Students identify and describe the issues surrounding water management concerns, engage in a problem solving exercise to prevent flooding and conclude the best possible solutions to prevent flooding.
Theme Nine: Landslides: The Earth Can Move
Grade 7 Theme 9a[PDF, 1.6 Mb] Lessons which will enable students to recognize the relationship between geology and landslides, the landslide hazard in the Ottawa-Gatineau area, and the importance of land use management when dealing with Leda clay. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
recognize the risks of landslides in the Ottawa-Gatineau area
understand the properties of Leda Clay and how landslides occur
appreciate the short interval of time in which landslides take place
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 9b [PDF, 957.9 kb] Students appreciate the extent of the hazard and the elements of risk associated with the landslides prevalent in the Ottawa-Gatineau area, - earthflows in sensitive marine (Leda) clay. Students use the on-line databases and maps of the web site : Urban Geology of the National Capital Area. Students complete an exercise to assess the hazard along the South Nation River.
Theme Ten: Earthquakes : In Ottawa !
Grade 7 Theme 10a [PDF, 792.3 kb] Lessons which will enable students to understand the risk of earthquakes in the Ottawa-Gatineau area. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
understand how earthquakes are measured
understand how to interpret a seismogram
explain why Ottawa has earthquakes
appreciate the risks of earthquakes in the Ottawa area and the precautions taken by governments to protect people
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 10b [PDF, 845.4 kb] Students understand the role that earthquakes have played in the geologic evolution of the Ottawa-Gatineau Geoscape and relate local fault features to the theories of plate tectonics. Students use the on-line databases and maps of the web site : Urban Geology of the National Capital Area. Students calculate the epicentre of an earthquake given information from seismograph stations. Students assess the risk of earthquake damage in the local area relative to other regions of Canada and the world.
Theme Eleven: Indoor Radon : An Invisible Hazard
Grade 7 Theme 11a[PDF, 430.0 kb] Lessons which will enable students to understand where Radon comes from, how it is formed, and how it affects humans. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
distinguish between stable and radioactive elements
recognize some elements in the periodic table with their associated symbols
be familiar with the radioactive chain reaction that leads to Radon production
understand the risk factors that may lead to high levels of Radon gas inside buildings
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 11b [PDF, 560.8 kb] Students investigate the hazardous nature of radon gas, analyze the location of potential concentrations and evaluate methods of reducing or preventing radon gas from entering homes.
Theme Twelve: Land Use : Living On The Land
Grade 7 Theme 12a[PDF, 1.7 Mb] Lessons that will enable students to investigate different scenarios and make informed recommendations. At the end of these lessons, students will be able to:
identify relationships between geological conditions and human activity
identify risk factors and make informed decisions and recommendations
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 12b [PDF, 608.3 kb] Students investigate how the components of our Geoscape affect land use, identify and describe land uses in both rural and urban areas, and acknowledge and appreciate how land uses change over time.
Theme Thirteen: Our Place in the Geoscape : Geoscape Culminating Activities
Grade 7 Theme 13a [PDF, 402.8 kb] Possible fieldtrips or field activities
Grade 9 and 11 Theme 13b [PDF, 806.9 kb] Students demonstrate that many components of the Geoscape are related and that they ultimately affect human use of the Geoscape. Students predict where future urban growth will occur and what land use zoning may be needed to maintain a high quality of life. Students experience first hand how our Geoscape works during an all-day fieldtrip and report on their findings.
Funding for this project came from Natural Resources Canada and the Ontario government